What is CNC Machine And Uses of CNC Machine
What is CNC machine ?
CNC means Computer Numerical Control. This means a computer converts the design produced by Computer Aided Design software (CAD), into numbers. The numbers can be considered to be the coordinates of a graph and they control the movement of the cutter. In this way the computer controls the cutting and shaping of the material. CNC Computer Numerical Control machines are widely used in manufacturing industry. Traditional machines such as vertical millers, centre lathes, shaping machines, routers etc…. operated by a trained engineer have, in many cases, been replaced by computer control machines.
How CNC Machine Works
The CNC machine comprises of the computer in which the program is fed for cutting of the metal of the job as per the requirements. All the cutting processes that are to be carried out and all the final dimensions are fed into the computer via the program. The computer thus knows what exactly is to be done and carries out all the cutting processes. CNC machine works like the Robot, which has to be fed with the program and it follows all your instructions.
Main Components of CNC machine
- A drive system consists of amplifier circuits, drive motors, and ball lead-screws. The MCU feeds the control signals (position and speed) of each axis to the amplifier circuits. The control signals are augmented to actuate drive motors which in turn rotate the ball lead-screws to position the machine table.First component of cnc machine is software .Software program is a series of coded instructions required to produce a part. It controls the movement of the machine tool and on/off control of auxiliary functions such as spindle rotation and coolant. The coded instructions are composed of letters, numbers and symbols.
- The program input device is the means for part program to be entered into the CNC control. Three commonly used program input devices are punch tape reader, magnetic tape reader, and computer via RS-232-C or USB communication.
- The machine control unit (MCU) is the heart of a CNC system. It is used to perform the following functions:
- To read the coded instructions.
- To decode the coded instructions.
- To implement interpolations (linear, circular, and helical) to generate axis motion commands.
- To feed the axis motion commands to the amplifier circuits for driving the axis mechanisms.
- To receive the feedback signals of position and speed for each drive axis.
- To implement auxiliary control functions such as coolant or spindle on/off and tool change.
- A drive system consists of amplifier circuits, drive motors, and ball lead-screws. The MCU feeds the control signals (position and speed) of each axis to the amplifier circuits. The control signals are augmented to actuate drive motors which in turn rotate the ball lead-screws to position the machine table.
- CNC controls are used to control various types of machine tools. Regardless of which type of machine tool is controlled, it always has a slide table and a spindle to control of position and speed. The machine table is controlled in the X and Y axes, while the spindle runs along the Z axis.